Liquid X® Particle-free Ink Technology

Particle-free ink

Our unique, particle-free ink formulations provide high conductivity with low metal content, excellent adhesion to the most difficult substrates (fabrics, ceramics, polymers, etc.) and tunable viscosities for use with the major commercial deposition methods (inkjet, flexo, gravure, slot die, direct write, aerosol).

Our experienced chemists can tailor the ink formulations to meet our customers’ most demanding performance and film/trace characteristic requirements in even the most robust environments.

advantages of
Ink Properties

  • Particle-free formulation …
    lends to long-term stability & excellent processability across all printing platforms.
  • Water-based system …
    offers sustainable formulations which are odor-free and environmentally friendly.
  • Tunable Viscosity …
    allows for customizable solutions across multiple printing platforms.

advantages of
Film Properties

  • Thin metal films/traces …
    provide high conductivity while decreasing precious metal usage and cost.
  • Excellent adhesion …
    both tensile and shear, across all commercial substrates and coatings.
  • Durable continuous metal films/traces …
    deliver high resilience even under flexing and stress.
  • Highly reflective films …
    produce a mirror-like finish upon curing.

We have state-of-the-art lab capabilities to meet your specific application requirements.

Competitive Analysis of Silver Inkjet Inks

Analytical and performance appraisal testing was completed by an independent third-party to compare the printability and mechanical strength of Liquid X® along with the commercially available, top competitive, silver inks.

Sheet Resistance (mΩ/□) 20.8 130 78,000
Film Thickness (nm) 436 324 220
Volume Resistivity (ohm-m) 4.11E-08 1.91E-07 7.77E-04
Bulk Resistivity Comparison (X bulk) 2.6 12 48972.9
Conductivity (S/m) 2.43E+07 5.24E+06 1.29E+03
Bulk Silver Conductivity (%) 38.60 8.32 0.002
Odor of Ink odorless mild odor strong odor
Printed Film Appearance Liquid X Shiny Film

shiny, even film


shiny, but bubbles in film

Dull, rough film

dull, rough film

Appearance after Adhesion Testing LX ink appearance Ink B Ink A
Adhesion, Tensile 5B 0B 0B
Adhesion, Shear Pass Fail Fail
*Gloss at 60⁰ angle (GU) 181 305 16

*Greater than 70: high; 10 – 70: medium


In terms of printability, we have found the Liquid X Silver Inkjet Ink to be by far the easiest to use with limited prior materials printing experience. It is free of volatile organic solvents, which reduces health and environmental risks, and does not require specialized curing equipment to achieve excellent adhesion, film uniformity, and electrical conductivity on glass or polymer substrates. The silver ink also does not exhibit the foul odor associated with other commercial silver inks or release noxious fumes upon curing.

Professor Enrique Gomez, Pennsylvania State University